Diffuse X-Ray Glow

A Surprise Glow at the Galaxy’s Center[1]

The region around the center of our Milky Way galaxy glows colorfully in this new version of an image taken by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.
The data were previously released as part of a long, 120-degree view of the plane our galaxy (see http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/images/2680-ssc2008-11a-Spitzer-Finds-Clarity-in-the-Inner-Milky-Way). Now, data from the very center of that picture are being presented at a different contrast to better highlight this jam-packed region. In visible-light pictures, it is all but impossible to see the heart of our galaxy, but infrared light penetrates the shroud of dust giving us this unprecedented view.
In this Spitzer image, the myriad of stars crowding the center of our galaxy creates the blue haze that brightens towards the center of the image. The green features are from carbon-rich dust molecules, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are illuminated by the surrounding starlight as they swirl around the galaxy’s core. The yellow-red patches are the thermal glow from warm dust. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are associated with bustling hubs of young stars. These materials, mixed with gas, are required for making new stars.
The brightest white feature at the center of the image is the central star cluster in our galaxy. At a distance of 26,000 light years away from Earth, it is so distant that, to Spitzer’s view, most of the light from the thousands of individual stars is blurred into a single glowing blotch. Astronomers have determined that these stars are orbiting a massive black hole that lies at the very center of the galaxy.
The region pictured here is immense, with a horizontal span of 2,400 light-years (5.3 degrees) and a vertical span of 1,360 light-years (3 degrees). Though most of the objects seen in this image are located near the galactic center, the features above and below the galactic plane tend to lie closer to Earth.
The image is a three-color composite, showing infrared observation

The editors of Astronomy deem the discoveries about the diffuse x-ray glow near the Milky Way’s center to be the 3rd most important astronomy story of 2015.

The unique eye of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) spotted a diffuse x-ray glow near the Milky Way’s center, and astronomers aren’t sure what is causing it.

When astronomers have a new telescope that can resolve types of light never seen before, they can usually expect a surprise. And that’s exactly what the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) uncovered when it collected a million seconds worth of high-energy x-ray light from the center of the Milky Way. Astronomers found a diffuse glow, but they can’t pin down what’s causing it.

Kerstin Perez was using NuSTAR data to study the glowing material around a neutron star lying in the galactic center. But she couldn’t get rid of a pervasive signal in the central 13 light-years by 26 light-years. Once she convinced herself and her colleagues that this signal truly exists, they went to work to figure out what it could be.

NuSTAR doesn’t just take pictures; it also spreads the light out in a spectrum, collecting information about the intensity of light at each individual color to make it easier to analyze. To figure out what creates the haze the researchers saw, they considered types of objects that would give a similar light pattern, says Perez. “And then you think, how many of those objects would you have to have in order to make up how bright we see it.” This analysis led the NuSTAR team to four possibilities, which they described in an April 30, 2015 Nature article.

Three of the possibilities are stellar remnants stealing gas from a companion. As this material piles up, it ignites and glows in x rays. The idea is that there are so many of these pairs that NuSTAR can’t separate them from one another, so they appear as a haze.

One of these types of corpses could be thousands of white dwarf stars, each 90 percent of the Sun’s mass. Another could be about a thousand black holes and neutron stars—the dense leftover cores of once massive stars. And the third option is some thousand millisecond pulsars, which are neutron stars that have had so much material dumped onto them by their companions that their rotation rates have sped up dramatically. The problem is that astronomers have no idea how so many of these objects whatever they might be—could exist in a small region in the galactic center.

The fourth possibility is that as material falls toward the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, some of it gets shot out at high speed. This streaming material could be interacting with nearby clouds of gas, causing them to glow. But the hazy glow that NuSTAR sees doesn’t look oriented in the right way for this explanation.

While astronomers with NuSTAR hope that upcoming telescopic observations can help narrow down which of these possibilities is responsible for this emission, they don’t expect to learn the answer soon.

[1] See “A surprise glow at the galaxy’s center,” Astronomy (44, 1, 2016, p. 29


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